Saturday, December 28, 2019

Creating a Business Idea and Types of Business Organizations

Small-Business Idea Recently the United States government has released funds for creating small businesses. An opportunity to acquire government funding for a business venture is one to take advantage of and to put dreams into reality. The intent of this paper is to outline the three main forms of business organizations including the tax and legal implications as well as the accounting requirements for each structure. In addition, this paper proposes creating a small business of a women’s only gym while weighing in the advantages and disadvantages of the three types of business organizations which are sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. To start the process of forming a business there are three main forms of business†¦show more content†¦These four financial statements are considered the backbone of financial accounting and show special significance, but ultimately, each has one common goal: to show internal and external users where the money is in the company. No matter what form of business organization the small business is they all need to prepare these four financial statements. The income statement deals with the revenues and expenses a company incurs for a period of time (Kimmel, Weygandt, Kieso, 2009). This financial statement reports the success or failure of the company’s operating and non-operating activities. The retained earnings statement shows the amounts and causes of changes in retained earnings during the period (Kimmel, Weygandt, Kieso, 2009). This statement brings together the beginning and ending retained earnings for the period, using information such as net income from the company’s other financial statements. A company’s balance sheet reports assets and claims to assets at a specific point in time (Kimmel, Weygandt, Kieso, 2009). In other words, the balance sheet summarizes a company’s assets, liabilities, and stockholder’s equity. These three segments give investors, creditors, and managers an idea as to what the company owns and owes, as well as theShow MoreRelatedBusiness Practices : The Business Wo rld910 Words   |  4 PagesBusiness practices are constantly changing along with the frequent changes of technology. These changes require imagination and invention in business. managers/leaders need to realize the importance of keeping themselves up to date. Creativity and innovation are significantly imperative to being competitive in today’s business world. Our HR department to strive to be more and more creative and innovative in terms of making new ideas and implementing productive processes into practice. For exampleRead MoreThe Importance Of Networking And Its Different Forms Essay1499 Words   |  6 Pagesvery important role in the business environment. It is all about creating new and enduring relationship, mutually beneficial to both the parties. The main objective is to have a friendly environment to increase the productivity within the organization and to share information to help each other. Networking has many benefits like, you learn new developments in your field collaborate and enhance your community who often act as support not only emotionally but also in business environment, you may alsoRead MoreHow Business Practices Are Changed Today s Business World962 Words   |  4 PagesBusiness practices are always changing along with the frequent changes of technology. These changes require imagination and invention in business. Managers/leaders need to realize the importance of keeping themselves up to date. Creativity and innovation are significantly imperative to being competitive in today’s business world. Our HR department to strive to be more and more creative and innovative regarding making new ideas and implementing productive processes into practice. 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Owning a business has developed into a greater thing then the cut and dry definition previously mentioned. Society’s desires have changed with the times, and it burdens businesses to accept more social responsibility for the cost of doing business. In order for a business to continue to be successful in this rapidly changing business world it must accept the changes of corporateRead MoreThe Future Of Biotechnology Through The Hands Of Innovation1197 Words   |  5 Pageslies in the hands of innovation. The seed industry is a primary example of how utilization of innovation can globalize any business. Innovation does not come easy; it requires the right people and environment to prosper. This environment is fostered through the organizational culture of the business. Being able to manage this culture becomes a greater challenge as a business becomes globalized. 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The customer’s perception and business relationship is very important, if not more important, as the stakeholder’s share of the organization and the customer isRead MoreModern Trends : Social And Business Life1161 Words   |  5 Pagesthat more social and business life are involved in the global network. â€Å"Twenty years ago, a business opened a storefront, put ads in the local paper, joined a local networking organization and hoped the local customers needed what they had to offer. All that changed with the inception of the Internet. A business is no longer dependent on its local customer base for its survival; it now has a worldwide audience for its goods and services. The Internet has changed not only a business customer base, but

Friday, December 20, 2019

Education Is An Essential Part Of Human Growth And...

Education is an essential part of human growth and development. Through learning and exploration, it can be difficult for students to find successful ways to go through schooling when they face struggles that are out of the classroom. As a teacher, I want to work with those students who fall through the cracks and find ways to motivate them towards their goals. It is important for me to think of ways for students to improve on their terms and create an environment for their learning. As a teacher, I find joy in serving students and guiding them to be the best versions of themselves. I am an effective teacher because I possess a passion for serving others. Through over five years of experience in the classroom, after school programs, camps, and leadership facilitation, I have worked with several educational organizations to develop my teaching skills to work with adults and children of all ages. In serving others, I find joy in being an effective member on a team. When I work with students, I love building relationships and finding mutual ways to grow and develop. I have grown to be very passionate about helping people and finding ways to do the most amount of good for the greatest amount of people, even if that means only assisting one person at a time. These ideals have sparked my interest in community service, which I plan to continue to promote in my daily life and as a teacher. Until recently, I was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Macedonia. While in this position, IShow MoreRelatedPast, Present, and Future: Personal Statement1827 Words   |  7 Pagesand give a full reflection on ones development despite the fact looking at the effects of finishing up the degree program of future and current professional objectives. In this paper, I will argue ones interpretations of learning, effects of personal development and growth which do comprise skilled competences and career aims. Furthermore, this paper assesses areas of growth of skill placement of core courses, which contains things such as general education and poses regions of recommendation thatRead MorePhysical Development in Middle Childhood Essay1649 Words   |  7 PagesThe physical, cognitive and socio-emotional domains of human development are influenced by diverse factors. Phases of development extend from the beginnings of human life and continue throughout the lifespan. These developmental phases are c haracterised by a range of features including brain development, language development and social development amongst others. Gross motor skills include activities such as running, skipping and jumping. They involve the use of the body’s larger muscle groupsRead MoreThe Human Development Index Is a Better Measure of Economic Performance Than GDP Per Capita624 Words   |  3 PagesI will advance the thesis that the Human Development Index (HDI) is a better measure of economic performance than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. By saying that the HDI is a better system to measure economic performance, I mean that because the HDI highlights the trend between longevity, education and economic growth, it calculates a better analysis of an economy (Costa, Steckel 1997, p. 71). In contrast, the GDP per capita only accounts for the gross domestic product without payingRead MoreSources Of Economic Growth And Social Justice Essay1402 Words   |  6 Pages3.1 Sources of Economic Growth and Social-Justice Egyptian per-capita income has been significantly improved in the second half of the first decade of 21st century, as it recorded, in average, $1984 (standard deviation $167), compared to $1312 (standard deviation $597), in average, during the first half of the decade. Figure (1) illustrates the development of per-capita income through the first decade of 21th century and it shows that per-capita income growth rates were, in most, negative duringRead MorePurpose And Understanding Of An Authentic Servant Leader1618 Words   |  7 Pageswith delegating responsibility, which is a needed skill in Higher Education as a Director or Dean. Pivotal events and opportunities led me toward the education field. 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In this essay, I will demonstrate my understanding, growth, and accomplishments related to the essentials. Essentials V, Vlll, l, ll During my educational journey, I was honored with the Trinity Health Foundation Silver Lamp Award â€Å"to recognize those professionals who createdRead MoreCarl Sauer s Notion Of A Cultural Landscape And Why Is It Useful For Understanding The World?1481 Words   |  6 Pagesenvironmental movement. His theory denounced the previously supported theory of environmental determinism, and suggested that cultural landscapes are shaped by humans, as well as many other cultural aspects. In a more complex sense Sauer proposed that cultural landscapes are the product of the human population, and that the actions of humans and define the environment in which we all live. In his own words, Sauer states that â€Å"Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium. The cultural landscapeRead More A Cleaner Future: A Comprehensive Pollution Prevention and Reduction Program1378 Words   |  6 PagesA Cleaner Future: A Comprehensive Pollution Prevention and Reduction Program Introduction Pollution is a major problem globally and it becomes greater as the human population continues to rise exponentially. One of the major problems with increased population is higher waste production, which creates increased air, soil, and water pollution. To resolve this problem waste reduction must be of primary importance in preventing and reducing pollution. Waste management can be an expensive undertaking

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Clinical Judgement Decision Making Nursing -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Clinical Judgement Decision Making Nursing? Answer: Introducation Decision making and judgment are significant facets of healthcare professionals identity and skills, including nurses. Decision making involves selecting a particular course of action to adhere to. Recent systematic and holistic approaches to the safety and quality of care provision have defined decision making as important non-technical skill. Nursing decision making, therefore, contributes in a significant management to the quality of care delivered. However, nurses can be presented with challenges while making decisions across the wide domain of this profession. Decision making models and theories act as analytical tools that when applied helps to solve complex situations for suitable decision making. Such models and theories guide the course of actions to be taken through a series of steps mostly involving intelligence activity, designing activity and choice activity. Some of the noteworthy decision making models and theories include intuition, information process theory, expecte d utility theory, cognitive continuum theory and social judgement theory. The present essay focuses on decision making in nursing practice in preparation for PEP (Professional Experience Placement). The essay discusses the three significant models and theories of decision making, namely Social Judgement theory, Information Process theory and Intuition that are commonly used in nursing practice. The paper critically analyses each of the theory and model by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each. Further, inconsistencies, contradictions and complexities between the theories are highlighted. One theory/model is selected from the three that would be applied to nursing practice in PEP, and a clear rationale is provided to explain the selection. Examples from practice are provided to support the choice made. Connecting the theory to practice is an essential part of the paper. A comprehensive conclusion is provided at the end of the paper the summarises the key points discussed throughout the essay. According to Chinn and Kramer (2014) in a healthcare setting, nurses are repeatedly faced with a number of demands to engage in proper decision making for care delivery. The process of analysing the options and making a choice is the essence of decision making. Researchers view this process as a complex one and suggests that the complexity of decision making needs a strong knowledge base and access to information. The decisions that nurses take have a drastic impact on their effectiveness in clinical practice and influences patients live to a considerable extent. Knowledge about how to make proper decisions is thus of prime importance. Understanding the decision making process is a prerequisite for facilitating learning and development of skills in nursing education. Alligood (2014) in this regard highlighted that nursing students must develop a key understanding of the nursing decision-making models which serve as templates describing the process nurses are to use for reaching to de cisions. These models and theories are frameworks that break down the complex decision process into subcomponents which are validated. Three major models are put forth in this paper the Social Judgement theory, Information Process theory and Intuition. The first theory to be analysed in this context is the Social Judgement Theory that takes a noteworthy position in the discussion of nursing decision making process. Social Judgement theory is a self-persuasion theory that has developed during the past few decades on the basis of the research done by psychologist EgonBrunswik. The theory is a cognitive theory emphasising on the uncertainty inherent in the social, biological and physical environment, and the probabilistic nature of human judgement in such environment. As per this theory, a person is to weigh new idea and compare it with the present point of view for determining where the new idea must be placed on the attitude scale in the mind of the person. The theory has been denoted as the subconscious sorting out of concepts and ideas occurring at the instant of perception(Smith and Parker 2015). As outlined in this theory, judgement of human beings fall along the cognitive continuum with intuitive judgement at one extreme, the analytical judgement at another, and quasi-rational judgement in the mid-range. At one extreme, when there is certainty of information and when there are rules for applying it, the likelihood of events of the future is systematic. At the other end, information is uncertain and the number of possible outcomes increases. Under such a condition, there are no rules to govern the behaviour of the person, and cognition is intuitive (Adderley and Thompson 2015). As per the authors, most situations confronting healthcare professionals, including nurses present challenges that need both analytic and intuitive processes. On the basis of social judgement theory, a healthcare profesisonalsjudegment and decision making is reliant on the social environment. What is notable is that the social environment can be perceived from different dimensions. Thus, the impact of patient condition in a clinical scenario as an environmental truth caninfleucne the clinical decision making of the care giver. As opined by McEwen and Wills (2017) the only theory that considers bridging the normative and real-life judgment and decision making process is the social judgement theory. The theory evaluates quality in terms of accuracy. The theory views the process of decision making in terms of the social reality of the situation, and this aspect makes the theory highly suitable for clinical judgement. Accuracy is not always the most significant criterion against which quality of a judgement is to be assessed. For example, in case of clinical emergency situations, a judgment that is fast but effective might be better than the one which is accurate but slower. For instance, in case of leg ulcer management, since it is a chronic long-term condition, accuracy in care is of more importance. However, in case of a wound suffered, application of first aid is of more important than other accurate measures. Shaban (2015) however argued that a person using the social judgment theory might be influenced b y susceptible alternative interpretation of a situation. Some perceptions of an individual seem to be more clear, and these are often interpreted in an improper manner as ambiguous messages. Moreover, a person who is easy to persuade would demonstrate more openness to influences. Care professionals might be open to persuasion and inducement by other professionals regarding a subject that he is not aware about. This would have a negative impact on the care delivery. One example can be cited about the application of this theory in practice wherein the registered nurse had administered an incorrect medication to a patient. Upon understanding the mistake of the nurse she had taken initiative to report to the team leader. For ensuring safe care delivery and optimal patient outcomes, we had to check blood pressure for the patient at an interval of every 15 minutes for one hour for making sure that is fine. The nurse had applied social judgement theory by analysing the factors that had contributed to the poor outcomes of the patient. The nurse collected cues about the outcomes of the drug administration and had come to the conclusion that incorrect drug delivery was the cause of poor patient outcome. The second theory that is to be analysed in the context of nursing decision making process is Information Process Theory which was first put forward by scholars Newell and Simon. The theory is a notable descriptive theory of human reasoning with postulates stating that human reasoning is the effect of the relationship existing between the tas environment and the problem solver. The theory provides an effective framework for the study of decision making involving the determination of a patient condition in a clinical scenario (Tiffen, Corbridge and Slimmer 2014). Dickison et al. (2016) opined that information processing originates basically from the science of cognition, focusing on the memory capacity, clustering of information into distinct and clearly recognisable patterns, analysing substitute choices and looking for resolutions to issues. Information is accessible to an individual from cue assessment and long-term memory, which then undergoes transformation into units. These unit s have the ability to undergo cognitive manipulation in short-term memory. In nursing field, suitable information processing can be used with verbal protocols to analyse major cognitive processes applicable in clinical decision making. Information processing thus is an enhanced and restored theoretical match for the ambiguity and dynamic decisions of nursing practice. Clinical problems in the nursing field are marked by the need of defining goals related to nursing diagnosis or assessment of patient condition. The problem solves, therefore, needs to consider the degree of information available at every stage of the decision making process. As per the information processing theory, the mental representation of a certain clinical problem created by an individual is referred to as problem space. The person analyses the length and breadth through the problem space by moving through the array of knowledge states. The pieces of information that a person has at different points in time determine the knowledge states. The decision making process can thus be denoted as the sequence of the marketing transformation of problem states till the goal is achieved. The professional must select one of the two types of operators for permitting the transformations; heuristics and algorithms. While heuristics is more like the rule of thumb, an algorithm is the set of protocol that is to be followed for allowing the appropriate solution (Cherry and Jacob 2016). Bacon, Lee and Mark (2015) explored the clinical decision making process of nurses in their research. The main findings of the research highlighted that nurses have a predisposition to corroborate clinical situations with colleagues who can guide with specific information. With the application of information processing theory in practice, nurses think ahead of clinical scenarios and situations and tend to adopt preventive strategies for combatting anticipated situations. This relates to the acknowledgement of similar situations and potential adverse events. Nurses can relate to such similar situations and act in an independent manner to apply decisions regarding interventions or patient assessment. Johansen and O'brien (2016) criticised the application of information processing theory in clinical practice by stating that the theoretical approach has the assumption that there lie restrictions to the volume of information that can be processed by a person at an instance, and decision making is the adaptation to these restrictions. Standing (2017) further highlighted the drawbacks of the information processing theory stating that hypotheses considered in due course might be incorrect, often leading to propositions that are inaccurate. The theory has been denoted as a quantitative approach that assumes that knowledge is accurate and available at the time of taking the decision. Nevertheless, in real life situations, decisions have an underpinning essence of uncertainty. For highlighting an example of how the theory can be applied to practice it is dicussed in here how a registered nurse had administered wrong medication to a patient and later realised that through information process theory of decision making process. The nurse had reported that she remembered that the drug that was delivered to the patient had been previously given by her to another patient in the past who had different medical problems. This information processing based on memory made her realise the mistake that had been done. For ensuring safe care delivery and optimal patient outcomes, blood pressure was checked for the patient at an interval of every 15 minutes for one hour. Acknowledgement of the fact that intuition takes a prominent place in clinical nursing practice has increased in the past three decades. The third theory that would be analysed in this paper is Intuition as applicable to nursing decision making process. Conventionally, nursing intuition has been associated with experience, pointing towards the use by an expert practitioner. In the present times, since demands are high for measurable evidence-based care, intuition has evolved in the way it is applied to decision making process, now known as an eminent element of judgement (Holm and Severinsson 2015). The intuition theory of decision making is primarily based on the somatic marker hypothesis. The hypothesis has the proposition that decision making is regulated by changes in somatic feeling and emotion hat includes signals from bioregulatory processes. A somatic state is defined as the non-conscious state wherein neural activation configurations occur due to the learned connection betwe en knowledge, memory and pattern recognition. The intuition theory is a cohesive and logical theory that is testable predictive and explanatory. Middleton-Green (2015) pinpointed that in a situation when a nurse has to make a decision, development of intuition creates a signal that aids in taking the proper decision. In case of intuition is not developed, the person analytically and cognitively appraises the scenario through the integration of conscious memory and pattern recognition for making the decision. Analytical decisions need sequential and logical thought processes. Blais (2015) suggested that intuition fundamentally involves reflection on experience, sense of subtle changes either qualitative or quantitative, feelings of knowing, and linking of perceptions from the past to foreseen future. Knowledge and perceptual awareness can enable a nurse to identify rich and important information applicable to the clinical scenario. Intuition also can help a nurse to understand a particular scenario as a whole, instead of an array of segmented tasks. As a result, there is no need of deliberate, incremental analysis of multiple isolated informative pieces. The end result is less time consumption and speedy decision making. Hassani, Abdi and Jalali (2016) linked nurses personal intuition with practice and research and suggested that intuition leads to expert practice as practitioners can offer their best to the patients in a care setting. The author further suggests that the intuition, speaking on a general basis, utilises the evidence of the highest order a fter analysing information from more than one sources. Intuition encompasses an unexpected realisation succeeding speedyassimilation of information, fostering appropriate decision making and enabling action against the comprehensive patient's needs. Alligood (2017) criticised the application of intuition by highlighting that the same is not effective when a nurse does not have adequate personal wellbeing, thereby influencing patient assessment and care in a negative manner. The authors further argued that intuition is not considered as a valued method in practice and is often no considered as a legitimate element of decision making process since it is sole dependent on observer skills and not scientific evidence. Pretz and Folse (2011) gave a suitable example of how intuition can be beneficial for decision making process. The author cited a real-life example where a middle-aged male patient had walked through the entrance into the emergency department of the general hospital. The care staff fetched a wheelchair which the patient refused kindly to sit on, claiming that he was fine. He, however, seemed very pale and was sweating excessively. The nurses asked the patient to lie down for undergoing an examination and wanted to collect information about his symptoms. Mentioning that he was suffering from a stomach pain, he cited that the reason might be food poisoning. Since the pain had not improved after considerable time, the nurse performed an ECG and connected the cardiac monitor. Though the vital signs were normal, the nurse informed the cardiac arrest team. It was an intuition that the patient was about to suffer a cardiac arrest and after a short, while the patient indeed suffered arrest. When confronted the nurse could only explain that it was her instinct and perception that emerged instantaneously based on previous experiences and subject knowledge. At this juncture, it would be appropriate to provide an example of how intuition can be applied in decision making process. While on my previous placement the registered nurse had given wrong medication to a particular patient and upon realising the error she had informed it to the team leader. The registered nurse had reported that it was her intuition that made her realise the mistake that had been done. For ensuring safe care delivery and optimal patient outcomes, we had to check blood pressure for the patient at an interval of every 15 minutes for one hour for making sure that is fine. The decision making model of intuition had been applied in here. As the registered nurse had the intuition that an error had been committed, there was a chance of rectifying the issue. The strength of the intuition had urged the registred nurse to engage in critical thinking in addition to the regular duties. When a nurse believes in her intuition, subjective feelings get lined with objective sympt oms of patients, thereby enabling a comprehensive care plan. A Professional Experience Placement (PEP) plays an important role in the nursing education since it is valuable for preparing the nursing student to become a registered nurse, by expanding the skill and knowledge base. The chief aim of the PEP is to provide the nursing student with relevant real life experience that helps in the development of clinical skills and translation of theory into practice. A nurse is to demonstrate appropriate decision making skills, and in the present context, the decision making theory of intuition would be applied in the PEP. The main rationale is based on the research finding indicating that nurses tend to make fewer errors when intuition is applied in decision making process. Nurses intuition would act as a critical component in relation to patient care in PEP and guide in the nursing process. Intuition would be helpful in establishing connections of spiritual and physical relationships. The physical connection would involve two individuals, the patient and the nurse, and emphasise on non-verbal communication and body language patterns. Spiritual connections would be more abstract in nature and would involve the exchange of energy fields. A suitable combination of both physical connection and the spiritual relationship is essential for nursing practice (Traynor, Boland and Buus 2010). A rich pool of literature highlight that intuitive aspects are exhibited by nurses across all levels of expertise, and these aspects commences at an early point in their career, including clinical placements. Further, the aspects become stronger with time and developing skills. The research evidence contradicts the argument that intuition denigrates a nurses ability to take decisions (Melin?Johansson, Palmqvist and Rnnberg 2017). In PEP, a nurse would need to demonstrate proper utilisation of pattern recognition, gut feeling, understanding of similarities, common sense, tactic knowledge, rational considerations and skills to know how. Intuition can be applied alone or in combination with other decision making process, depending on the level of skills and task complexity. Nursing process entails establishing contact with patients and nurses applying intuition can establish a unique contact with the patient. This would help in examining the symptoms that are otherwise beyond the scope of assessment. Intuition, when applied about special patients, can permit recognition of logical reasons behind the patient condition. Personal qualities would be important for the development of intuition and nurses who are open and accessible would be more emotionally involved with patients. The nursing profession is truely a complex one, needing the members to apply the skills and knowledge in different clinical settings. Nurse s must define and understand intuition as the process of knowing something on an immediate basis that improves the clinical experience and informs decisions (Payne 2015). In conclusion, it can be stated that professional experience placement plays a key role in the professional career of a nurse wherein a nursing student is to demonstrate his competence and skill set. Decision making of nurses holds the potential to aid allocation of resources and promote health gain in a healthcare setting. Prevention of patient harm and enhancement of patient benefit is possible when a suitable decision making theory or model is applied by the nurse. The three most prominent theories of decision making models are Social Judgement theory, Information Process theory and Intuition. Critical analysis of the three models highlights that each one of these has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. Drawing in evidence supporting the models, the intuition model would be applied in PEP in future. Intuition when applied in decision making process would help in taking appropriate decisions in relation to patient assessment and care delivery. The strength of a nurses intuitio n would urge the professional to do something beyond the regular duties and responsibilities. Intuition can be developed through strong critical thought and deep knowledge base. The distinct outcome is the establishment of caring relationships with the patient. Research points out that intuition has often been neglected by healthcare care settings as a prominent decision making tool, and nurses have been discouraged to apply the same. However, the evidence pool highlighting the suitability of intuition in application weighs more. Further study would help in expanding the knowledge base and indicating intuition as a hallmark of nursing knowledge. References Adderley, U.J. and Thompson, C., 2015. Community nurses judgement for the management of venous leg ulceration: A judgement analysis.International journal of nursing studies,52(1), pp.345-354. Alligood, M.R., 2017.Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Bacon, C.T., Lee, S.Y.D. and Mark, B., 2015. The Relationship Between Work Complexity and Nurses Participation in Decision Making in Hospitals.Journal of Nursing Administration,45(4), pp.200-205. Blais, K., 2015.Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson. Cherry, B. and Jacob, S.R., 2016.Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, management. Elsevier Health Sciences. Chinn, P.L. and Kramer, M.K., 2014.Knowledge Development in Nursing-E-Book: Theory and Process. Elsevier Health Sciences. Dickison, P., Luo, X., Kim, D., Woo, A., Muntean, W. and Bergstrom, B., 2016. Assessing higher-order cognitive constructs by using an information-processing framework.Journal of Applied Testing Technology,17(1), pp.1-19. Hassani, P., Abdi, A. and Jalali, R., 2016. State of science,intuition in nursing practice: A systematic review study.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR,10(2), p.JE07. Holm, A.L. and Severinsson, E., 2016. A Systematic Review of IntuitionA Way of Knowing in Clinical Nursing?.Open Journal of Nursing,6(05), p.412. Johansen, M.L. and O'brien, J.L., 2016, January. Decision making in nursing practice: a concept analysis. InNursing forum(Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 40-48). McEwen, M. and Wills, E.M., 2017.Theoretical basis for nursing. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Melin?Johansson, C., Palmqvist, R. and Rnnberg, L., 2017. Clinical intuition in the nursing process and decision?makingA mixed studies review.Journal of clinical nursing. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.13814 Middleton-Green, L., 2015. Nursing intuition: the role of embodied awareness in end-of-life care.International journal of palliative nursing,21(6), pp.265-265. Payne, L.K., 2015. Toward a Theory of Intuitive DecisionMaking in Nursing.Nursing science quarterly,28(3), pp.223-228. Pretz, J.E. and Folse, V.N., 2011. Nursing experience and preference for intuition in decision making.Journal of clinical nursing,20(19?20), pp.2878-2889. Shaban, R., 2015. Theories of clinical judgment and decision-making: a review of the theoretical literature.Australasian Journal of Paramedicine,3(1). Smith, M.C. and Parker, M.E., 2015.Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis. Standing, M., 2017.Clinical Judgement and Decision Making in Nursing. Learning Matters. Tiffen, J., Corbridge, S.J. and Slimmer, L., 2014. Enhancing clinical decision marketing: development of a contiguous definition and conceptual framework.Journal of Professional Nursing,30(5), pp.399-405. Traynor, M., Boland, M. and Buus, N., 2010. Autonomy, evidence and intuition: nurses and decision?making.Journal of advanced nursing,66(7), pp.1584-1591.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Ancient Egyptian Burial Essay Example For Students

Ancient Egyptian Burial Essay Ancient Egyptian and Greco-Romanpractices of preparing the dead for the next cradle ofhumanity are very intriguing. These two cultures differ in amultitude of ways yet similarities can be noted in the domainof funerary services. In the realm of Egyptian afterlife, TheBook of the Dead can provide one with vital informationconcerning ritual entombment practices and myths of theafterlife. The additional handouts I received from TimothyStoker also proved to be useful in trying uncover vitalinformation regarding the transition into another life. Regarding the burial practices of Greece and Rome, parts ofHomers Odyssey are useful in the analysis of properinterment methods. One particular method used by theEgyptians was an intricate process known as mummification. It was undoubtedly a very involved process spanningseventy days in some cases. First, all the internal organswere removed with one exception, the heart. If the bodywas not already West of the Nile it was transported acrossit, but not before the drying process was initiated. Natron (aspecial salt) was extracted from the banks of the Nile andwas placed under the corpse, on the sides, on top, and bagsof the substance were placed inside the body cavity tofacilitate the process of dehydration. After thirty-five daysthe ancient embalmers would anoint the body with oil andwrap it in fine linen. If the deceased was wealthy enough apriest donning a mask of Anubis would preside over theceremonies to ensure proper passage into the next realm. One of the practices overseen by the priest was the placingof a special funerary amulet over the heart. This was done inbehest to secure a successful union with Osiris and their kas. The amulet made sure the heart did not speak out against theindividual at the scale of the goddess of justice and divineorder, Maat. The priest also made use of a peculiar ritualinstrument, a sort of chisel, with which he literally opened themouth of the deceased. This was done to ensure that thedeceased was able to speak during their journeys in Duat. Another practice used by the Egyptians to aid the departedsoul involved mass human sacrifice. Many times if aprominent person passed away the family and servantswould willfully ingest poison to continue their servitude in thenext world. The family members and religious figureheads ofthe community did just about everything in their power to aidthe deceased in the transition to a new life. The communitymade sure the chamber was furnished with everythingnecessary for the comfort and well-being of the occupants.It was believed that the individual would be able of accessingthese items in the next world. Some of the most importantthings that the deceased would need to have at his side werecertain spells and incantations. A conglomeration of readingmaterial ensured a successful passage; The Pyramid Texts,The Book of the Dead, and the Coffin Texts all aided thelost soul in their journey through Duat into the Fields of theBlessed. Besides all these spells, charms, and magical tombtexts, the a ncient practice of depositing in the tomb smallwooden figures of servants was employed. These Ushabistatuettes as they are called, were essentially slaves of thedeceased. If the deceased was called to work in the Elysianfields he would call upon one of the statues to take his placeand perform the task for him. It was not unheard of for anindividual to have a figure for every day of the year to ensurean afterlife devoid of physical exertion. Just about every thingthe embalmers and burial practitioners did during the processwas done for particular reasons. Many of the funerarypractices of the ancient Greco-Romans were also done witha specific purpose in mind. Unlike the Egyptians theGreco-Roman cultures did not employ elaborate tombs butfocused on the use of a simple pit in the ground. Right afterdeath, not too dissimilar from the practices of the Egyptians,it was necessary for the persons to carefully wash andprepare the corpse for his journey. It was vital for allpersons to receive a proper burial and if they did not theywere dammed to hover in a quasi-world, somewhat of alimbo between life and death. One Greco-Roman myththat illustrates this point is The Odyssey by Homer. There isa part in Book eleven of the work in which Homerspecifically addresses proper burial rites. When Odysseuswishes to contact Tiresias, he comes across Elpenor, one ofhis soldiers. This particular man fell (in a haphazard fashion)to his death on the island of the Kimmerians, but did notreceive a proper burial and was stuck in limbo. Elpenorbegged Odysseus and his men to return to the island andcare for his body. Consequently, they did return and Elpenorpassed into the next world. Most likely he was buried in thesame fashion other members of his society were; a pyre wasprobably constructed and the body placed upon it. Alsoplaced on the pyre were items that the deceased held dear inlife with the hope that they would follow him into the nextworld. In order to survive in the afterlife, the deceased isalso presented with a small coin which came to be known asthe ferrying fee for Charon. This can be likened to theEgyptian practice of introducing coinage into the tomb insome cases. Homer also speaks of the psyche, which slipsout of man at the moment of death and enters the house ofAis, also known as Aides, Aidoneus, and in Attic as Hades.This idea can be compared to the concept of an individualsba in ancient Egypt. When someone died, an eternal part ofthem (their ba) would also slip out and seek out theindividuals spiritual twin (their ka) in order to unite with it andfacilitate a successful passage. Many times in myth, the livingdesired to speak with the departed. When Odysseus wishesto speak with the Nekyia in Book eleven, goats must besacrificed and their blood was recognized as inspiring thedeceased to speak. The Egyptians also were concerned withthe ability of the deceased to speak in the next realm; this isexemplified in one of the most important spells in The Book of the Dead, the opening of the mouth. When all the funeraryrites had been done, the next step was to mark the spot ofthe deceased. The grave is marked with a stone, the sign,sema. This grave stone would have the name of the soul,and often some type of epigram in verse form. Invariablynear the grave, some type of guardian of the soul would belocated. Lion and sphinx were found as grave markers andthis idea is paralleled in the practices of the natives of Egypt. .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .postImageUrl , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:hover , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:visited , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:active { border:0!important; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:active , .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5 .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9cb9b6323f250a2b5fc621f628551bc5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Analysis Of The Gettysburg Address EssayA certain cult image was buried with the deceased in Egyptin order to look after and more importantly protect ones bafrom being disturbed. It also acted as a type of purge valvefor any ba which may have been unjustly disturbed in thetomb. Burial practices aside one can note an interestingdifference between these two ancient civilizations. Differences can be observed concerning how amicable theafterlife was. The Egyptians had a positive outlook. Theybelieved that after one became Osirus, They would moveinto a new world, which was nice, no one had to work, andeverything was very clean. One could compare their lives inthe next world with the childrens classic board game,Candyland. In this game all was fine and dandy, the dontworry be happy attitude flourished, not distant from the lifein the Fields of the Blessed. On the other hand,Greco-Roman afterlife was a rather dismal place. The deadAchilles summed everything up by saying to Odysseus, Donot try to make light of death to me, I would sooner bebound to the soil in the hire of another man, a man withoutlot and without much to live on, than rule over all theperished dead. Needless to say, the Homeric afterlife wasno Candyland. Candyland or not, both cultures went toextremes in order to guarantee a successful voyage into thenext world. The two ancient civilizations hoped that throughtheir intricate actions the individual would be protected andprepared for their many experiences on the other side. Bylooking at selections of Homers Odyssey and The Book ofthe Dead, one can draw many similarities between the twocultures; however, differences are also apparent due tocultural differences concerning what would happen to thedeparted soul.